Multi-Architecture Builds

A very common requirement for build systems today is allowing compilation of the same code in multiple environments, at the same time. That is, given one set of source code, developers want the ability to create more than one set of targets from it.

This can be for anything from a debugging vs. an optimized version of the code, to building it on two or more different operating systems and/or hardware platforms.

As important as this is, it’s not entirely obvious how to get it working well using make. The first attempts, usually involving VPATH, are generally unsuccessful (see How Not to Use VPATH for more details).

However, it is possible to create a readable, useful, and usable build environment for multi-architecture builds. Here I describe a method for doing this.

Table of Contents

  1. Other Common Methods
    1. Source Copy Method
    2. Explicit Path Method
    3. VPATH Method
  2. The Advanced VPATH Method
    1. Single Target Directory
      1. Standard Makefile Template
      2. The target.mk File
    2. Multiple Target Directories
      1. Testing for Extra Target Directories
      2. Standard Makefile Template with Multiple Targets
      3. The target.mk File with Multiple Targets
    3. Sample Implementation
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. Revision History

Other Common Methods

First we’ll think about some other methods used for multi-architecture builds, and discuss the pros and cons. Ideally we’d like a method that combined all the important advantages while avoiding all the disadvantages.

There are three main approaches to this problem that are most common: the Source Copy method, the Explicit Path method, and the VPATH method.

Source Copy Method

This approach is fairly straightforward. At its simplest, it’s merely a physical copy of the entire source tree for each separate build type you want to create. Every time you want to build, you copy the sources to a new directory and build it there with whatever options you require. If you want to build it differently, copy the source to another directory and repeat.

The good point about this method is that makefiles are very simple to write, read, and use. The makefile creates the targets in the same directory as the sources, which is very easy. There is no need to resort to VPATH or alternate directories at all. Also, you can run builds such as “make foo.o” and it works correctly.

Unfortunately the downsides are more significant. Suppose you change a file; you must have some way of propagating those changes to all the copies of the tree, for testing: managing this so you don’t forget one and wreck your build or, even worse, introduce odd bugs is quite a challenge. And of course, multiple versions of the entire source tree uses quite a bit more disk space. Note to mention the “thumb-twiddling” time involved while waiting for the tree to copy in the first place.

Symbolic Link Farms

There is a flavor of the Source Copy method often used on UNIX called the symbolic link farm. The X Consortium, for example, uses this flavor. Here, a program or shell script is used to first create a “shadow” directory hierarchy: a copy of the directory structure is created, but no actual files are copied over. Next, instead of copying the source files themselves, the program or script creates a symbolic link for each file from the “shadow” hierarchy back to the “true” hierarchy.

The symbolic link farm has the same advantages as the Source Copy, and it ameliorates the worst of its disadvantages: since all but one of the files are sym links you don’t have to copy your changes around (but you do have to be careful to edit the original, or set up your editor to handle this situation properly–and some can’t). Link farm copies take up considerably less space and are faster to create (though still not free) than normal copies.

Nevertheless, symlinks can be annoying to work with; a small example: you need to remember to use the -L option to ls -l when you want to see the size or modification time of the actual file. Also, adding new directories or files to the source tree can be problematic: you need to remember to add them to the master copy, and have a way of updating the links in all your farms.

Explicit Path Method

Better (IMO) than the previous one is the Explicit Path method. You might take a look at the final result in How Not to Use VPATH for an example. In this method, you write your makefiles such that every reference to every target is prefixed with the pathname where it exists. For multiple architectures, you merely change that pathname (it’s obviously always stored in a variable!) The pathname can (and probably should) be calculated internally to your makefiles based on the current host architecture, or compiler flags, or both.

Often the target directory is a simple subdirectory of the current directory, but it could also be someplace completely different; this can allow, for example, building sources that exist on read-only media without copying them elsewhere first: the sources are left where they sit, and the targets are put elsewhere, in a writable area. If you write your makefiles carefully you can easily accommodate both styles by simply changing a variable value or two.

Obviously since you’re not copying sources anywhere, you avoid all that hassle of remembering what to update, when.

The problem here is with the makefiles. First, they’re more difficult to read, write, and modify: every reference to every target must be prefixed by some variable. This can make for a lot of redundancy in your makefiles. Following Paul’s Fourth Rule of Makefiles can alleviate this, but it’s still there.

Second, you cannot use simple rebuild commands like “make foo.o“; you must remember to prefix it with the target directory, like “make '$(OBJDIR)/foo.o'“. This can get unwieldy quickly.

The VPATH Method

Eh? VPATH? But didn’t we discover that VPATH wasn’t useful for multi-architecture builds? Well, not quite. We decided VPATH wasn’t useful for locating targets; however, it’s extraordinarily handy for locating source files.

So, this method does just that. Like the source copy method, we write our makefiles to create all targets in the current working directory. Then, the makefile uses VPATH to locate the source files for use, so we can write the source filenames normally and without a path prefix either.

Now all that has to be done is invoke the build from within the target directory and voila! It works. The makefiles are tidy and easy to understand, without pathnames prefixed everywhere. You can run builds using the simple “make foo.o” syntax. And you’re not required to expend time or disk space creating multiple copies of the source tree.

The most popular example of this method are the build environments created with a combination of GNU autoconf and GNU automake. There, the configure script is run from a remote directory and it sets things up for you in that remote directory without modifying the original sources. Then you run a VPATH-capable make, such as GNU make, and it uses VPATH to locate the source files in the distribution directory, while writing the target files in the directory where you invoked the build: the remote directory.

But wait a minute…

Unfortunately, there’s a painful thorn on this rosebush. I glossed over it above, but the phrase “invoke the build from within the target directory” hides a not-insignificant annoyance for most build environments.

First, you have to cd to another directory from the one you’re editing in to actually invoke the build. But even worse, the makefile for your build is back in the source directory. So, instead of just typing “make“, you need to run “make -f SRC/Makefile” or similar. Ugh.

The GNU autoconf/automake tools avoid this latter issue by putting the makefile in the target directory (the configure script actually constructs it at configure time from a template contained in the source directory). Or, you could set up a symbolic link in the target directory pointing back to the makefile in the source directory. This can work, but it’s still annoying and doesn’t address the first problem at all.

The Advanced VPATH Method

What would be really great is if we could combine the best parts of all three of the above methods. And why not? Looking at them again, the closest thing to what we really want is the VPATH method. It’s almost perfect. What does it need to make it just what we want? Well, we need to avoid having to change directories. So, what the advanced VPATH method describes is a way of convincing make itself to change directories for you, rather than requiring you to do it yourself.

The algorithm is simple: when make is invoked it checks the current directory to see if the current directory is the target. If it’s not, then make changes to the target directory and re-invokes itself, using the -f option to point back to the correct makefile from the source directory. If make is in the target directory, then it builds the requested targets.

How can this be done? It’s not difficult, but it requires a few tricky bits. Basically, we enclose almost the entire makefile in an if-then-else statement. The test of the if statement checks the current directory. The then clause jumps to the target directory. The else clause contains normal make rules, writing targets to the current directory. I use GNU make‘s include preprocessor feature to keep individual makefiles simpler-looking.

Single Target Directory

We’ll start with the basic case: each source directory is completely built in a single target directory.

Standard Makefile Template

Here’s a sample makefile:

ifeq (,$(filter _%,$(notdir $(CURDIR))))
include target.mk
else
#----- End Boilerplate

VPATH = $(SRCDIR)

Normal makefile rules here

#----- Begin Boilerplate
endif

Note the first and last sections are the same in every makefile. The included file hides all the tricky bits from the casual user. All the user needs to do is create her makefile in the Normal makefile rules here section, without worrying about where the targets go or where the source files are. These rules are written as if everything occurs in the current directory.

Let’s go through this line-by-line:

ifeq (,$(filter _%,$(notdir $(CURDIR))))
This is the moment of truth. This tests whether or not we are already in the target directory, or not. Depending on the results of this test make will see the rules in target.mk, or it will see the rules the user has written in this makefile (never both!).

The test you use will likely depend on your environment. The example here is a very simple one: in this environment I have a rule that all target directories will begin with an underscore (_) and that no source directories will begin with an underscore. This is nice because it groups all the target directories together and early in any directory listing, making them easy to find; it is a simple rule everyone can follow and which could even be tested for by triggers in your source control system to enforce; and it makes testing whether we’re in the target directory a simple matter of checking the current directory name to see if it starts with an underscore.

Another common test would involve comparing the target directory name with the current directory name, or some derivatives thereof. In this case, you need to compute the target directory name before the if-statement. In situations like that I prefer to include another file before the if-statement, say include setup.mk, that calculates the value of $(OBJDIR). Don’t duplicate that calculation in every makefile, of course! However, it’s simplest if you can come up with an easy rule that can be tested merely by looking at the current directory itself.

 
include target.mk The target.mk file contains all the super-magic bits that make the entire thing work. It is processed when (and only when) the user invokes make in the source directory, and it’s responsible for inducing make to leap over into the architecture directory and restart itself there. See below for details.
 
else We had an if; here’s the else
 
VPATH = $(SRCDIR) Remember that this method relies on using VPATH to find the sources; well, here it is! The previous fancy bits will cause the variable $(SRCDIR) to always contain the full path to the directory containing the sources, so we are merely saying “anything you don’t find here, look for in $(SRCDIR)”.

Feel free to move this elsewhere (likely you have your own common makefiles you want to include, for example), use vpath instead, or whatever. Just be sure that somewhere you tell make where to find the source directory!

 
endif The end of the if statement. You shouldn’t put anything after this (at least, I can’t think of anything useful to put here).

Not too bad. So, what’s in this magical target.mk file?

The target.mk Makefile

This file is where all the magical bits are hidden. If make is parsing this file, it means that the user invoked the build in the source directory and we want to convince make to throw us over into the target directory. Of course, we want to preserve all the same command line values the user provided, etc.!

Here we go:

.SUFFIXES:

ifndef _ARCH
_ARCH := $(shell print_arch)
export _ARCH
endif OBJDIR := _$(_ARCH) MAKETARGET = $(MAKE) --no-print-directory -C $@ -f $(CURDIR)/Makefile \ SRCDIR=$(CURDIR) $(MAKECMDGOALS) .PHONY: $(OBJDIR)
$(OBJDIR): ;+@[ -d $@ ] || mkdir -p $@ +@$(MAKETARGET) Makefile : ; %.mk :: ; % :: $(OBJDIR) ; : .PHONY: clean clean: rm -rf $(OBJDIR)

Let’s see what’s going on here.

.SUFFIXES: This is the first magic bit. This forces all (well, almost all) the builtin rules to be removed. This is crucial: we don’t want make to know how to build anything. Below, we’ll tell it how to build everything, and we don’t want it using any other rules.

To be truly comprehensive, it’s best to invoke make with the -r option. However, that usually means you need a wrapper around make that users will run, so they don’t forget. In my opinion a make wrapper script is a great idea and I always use one, but opinions differ.

Even if you do add -r, this line doesn’t hurt.

 
ifndef _ARCH
  _ARCH := $(shell print_arch)
  export _ARCH
endif

OBJDIR := _$(_ARCH)

  This section calculates the value of $(OBJDIR). This example is a little complicated; your version could be much simpler, as long as it sets $(OBJDIR).

Here, a variable _ARCH is initialized to the output of a shell script print_arch. That’s just some script you can knock off that uses uname or whatever is handy to determine what type of system you’re running on, then formats it into a simple string (suitable for a directory name–no spaces, etc.) and echos it. Exactly what that means is up to your environment, of course.

We try to gain a little efficiency by only invoking the shell once per build invocation: only if $(_ARCH) is not already set do we invoke the shell, and after it’s set make exports the value into the environment for sub-makes. Note you need to be sure users don’t accidentally have _ARCH in their environments before they invoke make–if you’re worried about this either calculate it every time (remove the if-statement), or use a really obscure variable name (it must be a valid shell variable name, though, or it won’t be exported!)

You may note I don’t use _ARCH elsewhere in the examples; it’s left as a separate variable here because it can be handy to have in user’s makefiles. For example, in the past I’ve used some functions to transform the value into a C identifier, added “-D” to the front, and stuck it into CPPFLAGS for those times you just have to be system-specific.

In this example I set $(OBJDIR) by simply adding an underscore to the beginning of _ARCH, to give all the target directories a common prefix that makes them simpler to find and manipulate. You may want to do more here: perhaps you want to differentiate the value of OBJDIR based on flags (debugging vs. optimizing vs. profiling, etc.) Whatever specializations you want to make, though, must be made here.

In this example I have set the target directory to appear as simple subdirectory of the source directory. However, if you prefer, OBJDIR could be a full or relative pathname instead.

 

MAKETARGET = $(MAKE) --no-print-directory -C $@ -f $(CURDIR)/Makefile \
               SRCDIR=$(CURDIR) $(MAKECMDGOALS)
  This is merely a shorthand variable containing the actual make command invoked to build in the target directory. Briefly, --no-print-directory is used to hide the fact that we’re jumping to the target directory; -C $@ is used to run the sub-make in the target directory; -f $(CURDIR)/Makefile tells the sub-make where to find the makefile (remember that when we invoke this we’re in the source directory, so $(CURDIR) is the source directory); SRCDIR=$(CURDIR) overrides the value of SRCDIR in the sub-make to point to the source directory; and finally $(MAKECMDGOALS) invokes the sub-make with all the goals the original make was invoked with.
 
.PHONY: $(OBJDIR)
$(OBJDIR):
        +@[ -d $@ ] || mkdir -p $@
        +@$(MAKETARGET)
  This is the rule that actually does the relocation to the target directory and invokes the sub-make there. The first line merely ensures the directory exists, and if it doesn’t it’s created. I prefer to have the target directories created by the build process, on the fly, rather than having them pre-created in the source tree. I think it’s less messy; much simpler to clean up (just delete the entire target directory!); it’s a useful hint as to what parts of the tree have been built and for what architectures: just look and see what directories exist; and finally, and most importantly, it means you don’t need to go through your source tree creating tons of new directories to add a new architecture, or remove or rename an existing one.

The second line, of course, invokes the make rule we described above.

We use the + operator to ensure this jump is made even when the -n option is given to make, and the @ operator to hide the clutter of the jump itself from the user.

We use the directory name ($(OBJDIR)) as the target just as a convenience; you can use the target name on the make invocation line and it would work. When dealing with multiple architecture directories in one build (see below), that can be useful.

 
Makefile : ;
%.mk :: ;
These lines are necessary, but not immediately obvious. Below we’re going to define a rule that will tell make how to build any target. One thing GNU make always tries to do is rebuild the makefile it’s parsing, as well as any included makefiles. Normally this isn’t a concern (aside, perhaps, from efficiency concerns) because make doesn’t know how to build those files. Without these lines, then, make will attempt to rebuild the makefiles using the match-anything rule, invoking itself recursively in the target directory! Not good.

These rules override that, by defining explicit empty commands to build the Makefile and any other files ending in .mk (if you use a different naming convention for makefiles you’ll obviously need to change the pattern rule above).

 
% :: $(OBJDIR) ; : This is the other extra-magic bit. When make is invoked, either without any targets (and the all: rule is chosen) or with some targets on the command line, it will look for a rule to build that target. Above we’ve removed all builtin rules, and the if-statement ensures that no rules the user wrote are visible here. The only option for make is this rule, so it always uses it.

This is a “match anything” implicit rule. The pattern, just %, will match any target make wants to build. We use the special double-colon (::) separator to specify that this is a terminating “match anything” rule; this improves efficiency. See the GNU make manual for details on “match anything” rules to understand this better.

The “match anything” rule depends on the $(OBJDIR) rule. That means that any target will first build the $(OBJDIR) target, which will cause the sub-make to be invoked in the target directory. Once make builds the $(OBJDIR) target once, it “knows” that target has been updated and won’t try to build it again for this invocation. Since the $(OBJDIR) target invokes the sub-make with all the command line goals, in $(MAKECMDGOALS), that one invocation is enough to build all the targets the user asked for.

Quick note: why do we have “:” as the command to be run? That’s the Bourne shell’s “do nothing” operator. GNU make is actually smart enough to notice that your rule consists of just the “do nothing” operator, and not exec a shell. Why don’t we just use an empty command (a semicolon with nothing after it)? We should be able to, but if you do then GNU make will print a bunch of warnings about “nothing to do”. This is actually a bug in GNU make, but this workaround does the job until it’s fixed.>/td>

 
.PHONY: clean
clean:
        rm -rf $(OBJDIR)
  While not strictly necessary, it’s handy to put the clean rules here. By doing so we assure that they are invoked in the source directory, and that we don’t recurse into the target directory at all.

In the environment used here, the target directory is created as needed to hold derived object files, so there are never any source files there. Thus, the clean rule is quite simply to remove the target directory and all of its contents! This is most readily accomplished from the source directory, rather than the target directory, and saves us an extra invocation of make as well.

Multiple Target Directories

Sometimes you’ll want a single invocation of the build to create files in multiple target directories. A common example of this is source code generators: in this case you want to build one set of targets (the source code) in a common target directory that can be shared by all architectures, then compile the source code into an architecture-specific directory. This can certainly be done with this architecture, but it’s slightly more complicated.

In the example above we split the makefile into two parts with an if-else statement: one part that was run when we were in the source directory, and one part that was run when we were in the target directory. When we have multiple target directories, we need to split the makefile into more than two parts: an extra part for each extra target directory. Then we’ll jump to each target directory in order and re-invoke make there. In this example we’ll stick with one extra target directory, so we’ll need three parts to the makefile.

Testing for Extra Target Directories

The first complication that arises with multiple target directories is, how do you decide if you have one or not? If all your directories have multiple targets, you’re fine; you can modify target.mk to jump to them in turn for all directories. However, most often only a few directories will need an extra target directory, and others won’t. You don’t want to have extra invocations of make in all your directories when most aren’t useful, so somehow you need to decide which directories have extra targets and which don’t.

The problem is, that information has to be specified in your makefile before you include the target.mk file, because that file is what needs to know.

The simplest way is to have the extra target directory exist before the build starts, then just have the target.mk test to see if the directory exists. The nice thing about this is it doesn’t require any special setup in the source makefiles, all the complexity can be encapsulated in target.mk. This is a good way to go if the extra target directory is the same everywhere (which is often the case)—for example, if it holds constructed source code that’s common between all architectures you might call it _common, then test for that:

EXTRATARGETS := $(wildcard _common)

Above I recommended against pre-creating target directories, but this can be considered a special case: it will always need to exist before any normal target can be built, so having it exist always isn’t as big of an issue.

However, if you don’t want the directory to pre-exist, or you can’t use this method for some other reason, the other option is to modify the source makefile and set an EXTRATARGETS variable. The minor disadvantage here is that it must be done by the user, and it must be set before the if-statement is invoked, meaning in the boilerplate prefix section which is no longer quite so boilerplate.

There are about as many possible ways to permute this as there are requirements to do so; here I’m going to provide an example of a simple case.

Standard Makefile Template with Multiple Targets

Here’s an example of a standard source makefile for a directory that has two targets: the _common target and the $(OBJDIR) target. This example assumes the first method of testing for the extra target directory, done in target.mk. If you choose another method, you need to insert something before the first line below.

ifeq (,$(filter _%,$(notdir $(CURDIR))))
include target.mk
else
ifeq (_common,$(notdir $(CURDIR)))
VPATH = $(SRCDIR)
.DEFAULT: ; @:

Makefile rules for _common files here

else

VPATH = $(SRCDIR):$(SRCDIR)/_common

Makefile rules for $(OBJDIR) files here

endif
endif

The new sections are in blue text above. You can see what we’ve done: we’ve added another if-statement into the target section of the makefile, splitting it into two parts. We execute the first part if we’re in the _common target directory, and the second part if we’re in the $(OBJDIR) target directory.

In the _common target directory, we use VPATH to find sources in the source directory. In the $(OBJDIR) target directory, we use VPATH to look in both the source directory and the _common directory.

There is one tricky bit here, the .DEFAULT rule. This rule, with a no-op command script, essentially tells make to ignore any targets it doesn’t know how to build. This is necessary to allow commands like “make foo.o” to succeed. Remember that regardless of the target you ask to be built, make will be invoked in both the common and the target directories. If you don’t have this line then when make tries to build foo.o in the common directory, it will fail. With this rule, it will succeed while not actually doing anything, trusting the target directory invocation to know what to do. If that invocation fails you’ll get a normal error, since the .DEFAULT rule is only present in the section of the makefile that’s handling the common directory builds.

If you have some common rules or variables that need to be set for both the _common and the $(OBJDIR) target directories, you can insert them between the first else and the second ifeq, above; that section will be seen by both target directory builds but not by the source directory build.

Obviously this example is geared towards handling generated source code; your need for multiple targets in the same build may be quite different and not require this type of interaction.

The target.mk File with Multiple Targets

In the last section we saw how the user separates her rules into different sections depending on which target directory is being built. Let’s see how to write a target.mk file that allows jumping into multiple target directories. It’s fairly straightforward.

.SUFFIXES:

ifndef _ARCH
_ARCH := $(shell print_arch)
export _ARCH
endif OBJDIR := _$(_ARCH) MAKETARGET = $(MAKE) --no-print-directory -C $@ -f $(CURDIR)/Makefile \ SRCDIR=$(CURDIR) $(MAKECMDGOALS) EXTRATARGETS := $(wildcard _common) .PHONY: $(OBJDIR) $(EXTRATARGETS) $(OBJDIR) $(EXTRATARGETS): +@[ -d $@ ] || mkdir -p $@ +@$(MAKETARGET) $(OBJDIR) : $(EXTRATARGETS) Makefile : ; %.mk :: ; % :: $(EXTRATARGETS) $(OBJDIR) ; : .PHONY: clean clean: $(if $(EXTRATARGETS),rm -f $(EXTRATARGETS)/*) rm -rf $(OBJDIR)

Again, additions to this file from the previous example are in blue text.

The first change sets the variable EXTRATARGETS to _common if that directory exists, or empty if it doesn’t. If you are using a different method of determining the value of $(EXTRATARGETS) you can change this line (or, leave it out if the source makefile is setting it for you).

Next, we include the value of $(EXTRATARGETS) (if any) as a phony target to be built, and use the same sub-make invocation rule for building it as we use for $(OBJDIR).

Next we declare a dependency relationship between $(OBJDIR) and $(EXTRATARGETS) (if it exists) to ensure that $(EXTRATARGETS) is built first; in our environment that’s what we want since $(OBJDIR) depends on the results of that build. If your situation is different, you can omit or modify this line. However, if there is a dependency between these two you must declare it. Otherwise, make might do the wrong thing, especially in the presence of a parallel build situation.

We add $(EXTRATARGETS) to the prerequisite line for the match-anything rule. In this case, since we declared the dependency relationship above, we could have omitted this and achieved the same result.

Finally, if $(EXTRATARGETS) exists we remove its contents during the clean rule. Remember that in this scenario the presence or absence of the _common directory is what notifies us that there is an extra target directory, so we must be careful not to remove the directory itself, only its contents. The if-statement will expand to an empty string if $(EXTRATARGETS) doesn’t exist.

Sample Implementation

You can download a very small sample implementation of the above method right here. Uncompress and untar the file, then change to the example directory and run make.

This trivial example merely transforms a version.c.in file into an _common/version.c file, using sed to install a version number. Then it creates an executable in the target directory:

example$ make
sed 's/@VERSION@/1.0/g' /tmp/example/version.c.in > version.c
cc /tmp/example/_common/version.c -o version

example$ ls _*
_Linux:
version

_common:
version.c

example$ _Linux/version
The version is `1.0'.

Now, if you override OBJDIR to have a different value you can see that version.c is not recreated, as it’s common between all the targets, but a new version binary is built:

example$ make OBJDIR=_Test
cc /tmp/example/_common/version.c -o version

example$ ls _*
_Linux:
version

_Test:
version

_common:
version.c

example$ _Test/version
The version is `1.0'.

Acknowledgments

  • When I was first developing this idea back in 1991/1992, I bounced a number of questions off of Roland McGrath: his responses were very helpful.
  • The enhancement for using $(MAKECMDGOALS) and the match-anything rule (instead of .DEFAULT as in the previous version of this document) was suggested to me via email by Jacob Burckhardt <bjacob@ca.metsci.com>. This also prodded me to revise and complete this document: when I wrote it originally $(MAKECMDGOALS) didn’t exist, and I wondered what other features added since the original version could be useful in this method.

Thanks to all!

Revision History

1.00 18 August 2000 Revised.
0.10 ???? 1997 Initial version posted; final sections still under construction.

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